In a surprise find, astronomers have discovered a planet possibly covered with oceans of magma “right around the corner.”
Thirty-three light years away, “we have a sub-Earth-sized planet that’s slightly larger than Mars and essentially right around the corner, at least on a cosmic scale,” said Kevin Stevenson, a planetary scientist now at the University of Chicago
UCF-1.01 is about 5,200 miles (8,400 kilometers) wide, making about a quarter the volume of Earth. And with a year that lasts only 1.4 Earth days, the new planet’s orbit takes UCF-1.01 searingly close to its star.
“It could be a thousand degrees Fahrenheit [540 degrees Celsius]. That may be hot enough to make an ocean of molten rock.”
Researchers using NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope essentially stumbled upon the new planet while studying a hot, Neptune-size planet called GJ 436b.
Learn more: National Geographic – New Planet Found: Molten “Mars” Is “Right Around the Corner”
Continue reading Astronomers discover a close new planet – covered in oceans of magma
This column is focused on “craft” beer, as opposed to the big brands that still dominate beer sales worldwide. The terms “craft beer” and “micro-brew” are sometimes used interchangeably, but they are actually distinct from one another.
Micro-breweries produce less than 15,000 barrels of beer per year, while craft beer can be produced by breweries of much greater size.
So what exactly is “craft beer?” The Brewer’s Association (the trade group for craft brewers) offers their own definition. They say a craft brewer must be small, independent, and traditional.
- By small, they mean annual beer production of no more than two million barrels of beer—Boston Beer, maker of Samuel Adams, is teetering on the brink of this limit and has about a one percent share of the U.S. beer market. Many local brewers produce less than a thousand barrels a year.
- By independent, they mean that no more than twenty-five percent of the brewery can be owned by a big brewery like A-B, Miller, or Coors (the Big Three).
- Traditional is the hardest to pin down, as they state a traditional brewer is one that has “an all malt flagship” or which uses “adjuncts to enhance rather than lighten flavor”—a subjective matter. That’s a dig at the Big Three who use adjuncts (corn or rice) to lighten body and flavor and increase mass appeal.
Via – BH Weekly
Craft Brewing Facts
- Craft brewers currently provide an estimated 103,585 jobs in the U.S.
- Growth of the craft brewing industry in 2011 was 13% by volume and 15% by dollars compared to growth in 2010 of 12% by volume and 15% by dollars.
- The craft brewing sales share in 2011 was 5.7% by volume and 9.1% by dollars.
- Craft brewer retail dollar value in 2011 was an estimated $8.7 billion, up from $7.6 billion in 2010.
- 1,940 craft breweries operated for some or all of 2011, comprised of 1,063 brewpubs, 789 microbreweries and 88 regional craft breweries.
Source – Brewers Association
And, if you live in Southern California, San Diego has 46 craft brewers for you to try out and 9 more opening this year. Get your drink on.
Continue reading Craft beer is rising in America – matching the elegance of beer in Europe