What is the Higgs boson and why does it matter? (in simple terms)

What is the Higgs boson and why does it matter? (in simple terms)

If you remember basic chemistry, the atom is made up a proton, neutron, and electron. Those were the basic building blocks of life when I was a kid. I remember illustrations showing the neutron and proton in the center with the electron orbiting around it 둥지 짓는 드래곤 다운로드.

In the 1960’s several physicists starting thinking about things smaller than atoms, called sub-atomic. They developed several theories about these sub-atoms until the 1970s, when one model stood out. This is called the Standard Model of physics.

In that model, there are 12 particles and 4 forces. The particles are called quarks and leptons, and the forces are called – strong, weak, gravity, and electromagnetic 다운로드.

The forces are the most important because they describe some pretty amazing things. For example, the electromagnetic force is carried by a particle of light, called a photon. The photon has infinite range and great strength, giving the light of stars the ability to travel thousands of light years to be seen on Earth.

The force of gravity is carried by a particle called a graviton 초콜릿 영화 다운로드. It also has an infinite range but a very weak strength. For example, the Sun exerts a powerful pull on the Earth because it is very close, but when you get farther away that strength becomes minimal. It does not have the range that the photon does.

Both of these particles, and all of the particles that involve energy, are called bosons. These bosons are sub-atomic particles that transfer energy to each other 다운로드.

Now, the interesting thing is figuring out why these photons can travel for infinite ranges, when other particles can barely keep moving.

The leading theory, calls for a Higgs field that covers the entire universe. It is an energy field made up of a particle called the Higgs boson. When a particle travels through the universe it either attracts the Higgs boson or pushes it away 테드 영상 다운로드. If it attracts the Higgs boson then they combine to form matter and gain all the properties of mass (weight, gravity, etc.). If it repels the Higgs boson then it continues to travel as a form of energy over an infinite range (light).

The combination of the Higgs boson with other particles creates life as we know it, the matter that makes up humans, plants, rocks, etc. This is most likely the reason why it has come to be called the “God particle.”

The forces that ignore the Higgs boson do so at varying degrees 꿈이 아니길. Photons of light ignore it completely. Other particles attract some Higgs bosons and slow down, eventually limiting their range and strength.

Of course, none of this was certain because scientists were unable to see the Higgs boson. Being a sub-atomic particle it is invisible to the naked eye and undetectable in a lab. It puts us in a weird predicament, how do you find something that you are not even sure exists 다운로드?

CERN’s Large Hadron Collider solves that problem for us. This gigantic particle accelerator allows us to speed up particles and smash them together. Specifically, it smashes together hadrons which are multiple particles combined together.

When these particles are smashed together the scientists observe what happens 다운로드. If everything acts like the Higgs theory says it does (i.e. there is a Higgs field with Higgs bosons that slow some particles but not photons), then they have proof.

With that proof the scientists of the world can move on to other more complex problems. Areas where this model falls short like with dark energy or the full theory of gravitation 임협헬퍼 극장판 다운로드.

Another step in our greater understanding of the world. Each one allowing us to do more with energy, matter, and life.

 

Sources: CERN – the Standard Model, Guardian – What is the Higgs boson?, CERN – the Higgs boson, Wikipedia – Higgs boson

 

Continue reading What is the Higgs boson and why does it matter 윈도우7 게임 다운로드? (in simple terms)

President, Congress pass bill to allow venture capital funding via crowd sourcing

Earlier this month, President Obama sign the JOBS bill into law with strong bipartisan support, and no this isn’t the one you’re thinking of 테이크미 다운로드. This one is designed specifically for funding start-ups with a particular focus on crowd funding (i.e. Kickstarter) 엠비씨 미니 다운로드.

Explained by author and professor, Jeff Jarvis:

The JOBS bill being signed by President Obama today is critical to the emergence and growth of the next generation of industries as ecosystems Mariadb jdbc driver download.

Those ecosystems are made up of three layers: platforms, entrepreneurial ventures, and networks 다운로드.

Platforms (Google, Amazon, Salesforce, Facebook, Kickstarter, Federal Express, Foxconn), which make it possible for entrepreneurial ventures to be built at lower cost with less capital and reduced risk at greater speed 다운로드. To provide the critical mass that large corporations used to provide — to, for example, sell advertising at scale or acquire distribution or acquire goods or services at volume — sometimes these ventures need to band together in networks (Glam, YouTube, Etsy, eBay) melsec plc 프로그램.

The bill supports this flourishing start-up trend by updating some outdated laws, from the 1930s, and correcting some from the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 gta iv download.

Of interest to us, the regular people:

  • Entrepreneurs can raise up to $1 million per year through those approved crowd funding channels 다운로드.
  • Investors with incomes of less than $100K will be limited to 5 percent, or $2K, investments.
  • Those who make over $100K/year will be limited at 10 percent, or $10K 다운로드.

Previously, one could not sell equity through crowd funding and only registered investors with $100,000 could fund a company. Now, with the crowd sourcing provision anyone can get in on the action 마녀배달부 키키 더빙.

This is great for the industry and those with a nose for investing, but do be wary. Internet scammers and unskilled entrepreneurs will soon be asking for your money to fund the next Google.

 

Learn more about the billJumpstart Our Business Start-ups (JOBS) Act

 

// Photo – Guano

Duct tape your sister to a wall (and other family portraits)

닌자 고 동영상 다운로드

Continue reading Duct tape your sister to a wall (and other family portraits)

포트리스2 다운로드 다운로드 다운로드 다운로드